What will humans look like in a million years?

What will humans look like in a million years?


Human structure, body and genes change over time.

To understand our evolution, we need to look at our past.

Will the next generations be the ‘cyborg’ generation that is loaded with high-tech machines like in the science fiction movies, whose limbs are self-extracting, and the camera is placed in their eyes?

Will humans become a hybrid of biological and artificial beings? Or will we be shorter or taller, heavier? Or will we turn into beings with different facial features and features with different skin colors?

Of course we don’t know, but to find the answer to this question, we can look at what people looked like a million years ago. That period ‘homo sapiens‘(human) did not exist. A million years ago there were probably different varieties of homo sapien species. These include the ‘homo erectus’ (erect man) and ‘Homo heidelbergensis’ (Heidelberg man), which has similarities with modern humans but is more primitive than the anatomy of Neanderthals.

More recently, there have been major changes over the last 10,000 years that people have to adapt to. Life and crops linked to agriculture have led to some health problems that we have solved with the help of science. For example, the use of insulin in the treatment of diabetes. In terms of appearance, people became fatter and taller in some areas.

Assistant Professor of Bioinformatics, Denmark Aarhus University. Dr. Thomas Mailund says we may have ‘shrunk’ so that our bodies need less energy. He states that the benefits of this may have been seen in the world with a growing population.

Living with many different people was also born as a new condition that people had to adapt to. During our hunting period, daily interaction between people was limited. Mailund says we can evolve in different ways to achieve these interactions. For example, remembering people’s names can become a very important skill.

‘It’s not a matter of biology, it’s a matter of technology’

Technology also comes into play here. “One to attach to the brain implant It can help us remember people’s names, ”says Mailund.

“We know what genes are in the brain that help us remember people’s names. We can change them. It sounds like science fiction. But we can do it now. İmplant We can insert it into the brain, but we don’t know how to make connections that work. Soon it will too, but for now it is very experimental. “

“This is no longer a matter of biology, it’s a matter of technology,” says Mailund.

People use implants to relieve some of their body discomfort, such as pacemakers or hip implants. Perhaps in the future, implants will be used for the development of people.

Implants can also be placed in areas that appear as part of our appearance, such as brain implants, such as artificial eyes with cameras that can detect different colors and images.

We’ve all heard of “design dolls”. Scientists have the technology to change genes within an embryo. But this is a controversial topic and no one knows what the next step will be. But perhaps not changing some genes will be seen as an ‘ethical issue’ in the future, according to Mailund.

However, making choices about a baby’s characteristics can also come as an option, perhaps people will look like their parents want them to appear.

“There will still be a choice, now an artificial choice. We will do what we do to dog breeds with human lineage,” says Mailund.

These are all theoretical issues, but can demographic trends give us clues as to how we will look in the future?

What do demographic trends show?

Dr. Jason A. Hodgson comments:

“It would be pure speculation to predict a million years from now. genetic It is of course possible to predict the nearer future through bioinformatics by combining what is known about differences with the modeling of the progression of demographic change. “

Genetic scientists, who have examples of human genome structures around the world, now have a broader knowledge of genetic changes and developments in the structure of the human population.

We can’t predict how genetic variation will evolve, but scientists specializing in bioinformatics are looking at demographic trends to get an idea.

Hodgson predicts that urban and rural areas will cause more and more differentiation for people:

“All migration is from rural areas to cities, so you see that genetic diversity is increasing in cities and decreasing in rural areas. You can see differentiation along the lines where people live.”

The situation may change according to the world. But in the UK, for example, the diversity is less in rural areas. Long-standing lineages in Britain are more prevalent. In places where cities are formed, the immigrant population is high.

Birth rates also differ between some communities. For example, the population in Africa is increasing rapidly; Therefore, the genes here are growing faster than the global population level. Birth rates are lower in areas with lighter skinned communities. Hodgson predicts that globally darker populations will increase when looking at skin colors:

“Dark skin is almost certain to increase globally faster than lighter skins. We can expect the average person a few generations from now to have darker skin tones than they are now.”

But what could happen in space? If humans colonize Mars, how could our image undergo evolutionary transformation?

With the low gravity, the structure of the muscles in our body can also change. Perhaps our arms and legs will be longer.

In a colder, Ice Age-like climate, would our body hair be denser like Neanderthals, and our bodies heavier?

We don’t know. But human genetic variation is definitely increasing.

Hodgson says that each of the 3.5 billion base pairs in human genomes around the world undergoes at least two new mutations each year. This is quite a surprising situation. It shows that it is almost impossible for us to still have the same appearance a million years from now.

BBC


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